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CHEST: Ultrasound-Guided Thoracentesis

Is It a Safer Method?

Phillip W. Jones, DMD, MD; J. Phillip Moyers, MD; Jeffrey T. Rogers, RRT; R. Michael Rodriguez, MD; Y. C. Gary Lee, MB ChB and Richard W. Light, MD, FCCP
* From the Departments of Medicine (Drs. Light and Rodriguez) and Radiology (Dr. Moyers and Mr. Rogers), Saint Thomas Hospital, and Vanderbilt University (Drs. Jones and Lee), Nashville, TN.

Correspondence to: Richard W. Light, MD, FCCP, Director of Pulmonary Disease Program, Saint Thomas Hospital, 4220 Harding Rd, Nashville, TN 37205; e-mail: RLIGHT98@yahoo.com

Study objectives: The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to determine the incidence of complications from thoracentesis performed under ultrasound guidance by interventional radiologists in a tertiary referral teaching hospital; (2) to evaluate the incidence of vasovagal events without the use of atropine prior to thoracentesis; and (3) to evaluate patient or radiographic factors that may contribute to, or be predictive of, the development of re-expansion pulmonary edema after ultrasound-guided thoracentesis.

Design: Prospective descriptive study.

Setting: Saint Thomas Hospital, a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Nashville, TN.

Patients: All patients referred to interventional radiology for diagnostic and/or therapeutic ultrasound-guided thoracentesis between August 1997 and September 2000.

Results: A total of 941 thoracenteses in 605 patients were performed during the study period. The following complications were recorded: pain (n = 25; 2.7%), pneumothorax (n = 24; 2.5%), shortness of breath (n = 9; 1.0%), cough (n = 8; 0.8%), vasovagal reaction (n = 6; 0.6%), bleeding (n = 2; 0.2%), hematoma (n = 2; 0.2%), and re-expansion pulmonary edema (n = 2; 0.2%). Eight patients with pneumothorax received tube thoracostomies (0.8%). When > 1,100 mL of fluid were removed, the incidence of pneumothorax requiring tube thoracostomy and pain was increased (p < 0.05). Fifty-seven percent of patients with shortness of breath during the procedure were noted to have pneumothorax on postprocedure radiographs, while 16% of patients with pain were noted to have pneumothorax on postprocedure radiographs. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 0.6% despite no administration of prophylactic atropine. Re-expansion pulmonary edema complicated 2 of 373 thoracenteses (0.5%) in which > 1,000 mL of pleural fluid were removed.

Conclusions: The complication rate with thoracentesis performed by interventional radiologists under ultrasound guidance is lower than that reported for non–image-guided thoracentesis. Premedication with atropine is unnecessary given the low incidence of vasovagal reactions. Re-expansion pulmonary edema is uncommon even when > 1,000 mL of pleural fluid are removed, as long as the procedure is stopped when symptoms develop.

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